Ms Leith, who was made an OBE in 1989 and a CBE in 2010, has been given a damehood and said it was a "huge honour" to be recognised in such a way.
"I am thrilled, delighted and very grateful. I’m not sure I deserve such a pat on the back for doing things that I’ve loved all my long life – in business or cooking or campaigning," she said.
"But I can’t pretend it’s not a huge honour and source of pride. Dame Prue! It will take some getting used to."
The 81-year-old founded cookery school Leith’s School of Food and Wine, in 1974 and went on to enjoy a successful television career.
She appeared on BBC Two’s Great British Menu for over 10 years before replacing Dame Mary Berry on The Great British Bake Off when it moved to Channel 4 in 2017.
Last year she took part in an independent review to set out a series of recommendations to serve better hospital food, alongside Boris Johnson.
Arlene Phillips has also been awarded a Damehood for her services to dance and charity.
The 78-year-old has choreographed West End hits including Grease, The Wizard Of Oz and The Sound Of Music and became one of TV’s most familiar faces when she joined the original judging panel for the BBC’s Strictly Come Dancing.
The mother-of-two was appointed a CBE in 2013 for services to dance and charity.
She said: "I am immensely thrilled and honoured to be recognised by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for services to dance and charity.
"This is truly the highest recognition I could ever have dreamed of.:
Other women honoured this year include actress Ruth Wilson who starred in The Affair and Luther, who has been made an MBE for services to drama.
Lulu, best known for her 1964 hit Shout, has been given a CBE for services to music, entertainment and charity.
The singer, 72, who represented Britain at the Eurovision Song Contest in 1969, received an OBE more than two decades ago in 2000.