Resource nationalism is the term being used to describe governments wanting a greater return from mining companies â by way of taxes, royalties or other means - in exchange for their right to mine.
Leading the charge on resource nationalism, according to the global mining industry,Â is resource-rich Australia.
And the industry blames the Australian Government for encouraging the trend.
According to Ernst and Young's most recent surveyÂ of global mining, resource nationalism is regarded asÂ the number one risk for the resources sector in 2012.
"You don't own the minerals," Prime Minister Julia Gillard told miners at the Minerals Council of Australia annual dinner in May.
"I don't own the minerals, governments only sell you the right to mine the resource.
A resource we hold in trust for a sovereign people.
They own it and they deserve their share." One mining executive told the Australian Financial Review the mining executives were "dumbstruck" by Ms Gillard's comments.
"She told us this is Australia and it has a Labor government, that it is a party of redistribution, so suck it up," the executive said.
There is also concern that Australia is exporting Labor's redistribution ideology on natural resources to other countries.
A common response by the mining industry to the introduction of the Mineral Resources Rent Tax (MRRT) was that companies would leave Australia to invest in other countries especially in Africa, like Ghana, Guinea, South Africa and Liberia.
But now Africa is taking lessons from Australia inÂ what is called "mining governance".
Exporting change Mining governanceÂ is all about transparent mining regulations, contract reviews and mineral taxation policies.
In 2011, South Africa's African National Congress party sent a delegation to Australia to study the Mineral Resources Rent Tax.
And last April the Prime Minister's newly-appointed special envoy to Africa, Joanna Hewitt, visited Liberia.
Ms Hewitt signed an agreement with the Liberian government to set up a natural resource taxation unit.
Australia gave $700,000 to provide advice to Liberian finance officials on mineral taxation.
Her visit to Monrovia received no media attention in Australia,Â but Liberian officials appreciated Australia's support.
DeputyÂ minister of finance James Kollie toldÂ Liberia's Daily Observer that with Australian assistanceÂ "revenue officials will be adequately armed to approach natural resource companies".
At the African Union Summit in Addis Ababa last month, the Australian Government was singled out for praise for helping African countries improve their mining regulations.
There is a definite trade interest for the Australian Government advising resource-rich African countries, and there are more than 200 Australian mining companies on the continent with over $50 billion of investment.
According to Canadian resources expert Professor Bonnie Campbell, "the Australian Government is very activeÂ and very positive" in reformingÂ African mining regulations.
Professor Campbell, whose area of expertise is the bauxite and aluminium industry of Guinea, is concerned someÂ mining companies are resisting and lobbying against new mining regulations in African countries.
These companies interpret the mining reforms as resource nationalism or even nationalisation.
Tara O'Connor, the director of Africa Risk Consulting, a London-based firm which advises mining companies on political risk, predicts a surge in resource nationalism.
"I thinkÂ the resurgence of democracy on the continent is going to increase, not decrease, the pressure for greater ownership," Ms O'Connor told Radio Nationalâs Background Briefing.
She said she believes the problems of the past - corruption, even nationalisation - do still exist for mining companies, especially in Africa, but that resource nationalism is tied to democratisation.
"Greater democracyÂ means that people will have greater cloutÂ and a greater voice and that is probably something for the first time in 30 years mining companies that have operated with near impunity across the continent will have to take into account," Ms O'Connor said.
- Listen to "A fair share of the boom" on , ABC Radio National, Sunday August 5 at 8.00am.